Farm System Summary

WOODLEAF FARM – FARM SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Woodleaf farm is a leader in two important areas of organic fruit production: farm design to suppress insect and disease pests and systems soil management to improve plant health. Over 30 years, Woodleaf has developed effective design and management strategies to generate specific ecosystem functions such as insect pest and disease suppression and a tightly coupled soil nitrogen: carbon cycle. The systems management strategies utilized for pest suppression and soil health are intertwined, synergistic, and help to minimize off-farm inputs.  Here we present a summary of the details.

At Woodleaf Farm lots of flowering plants are left to go to flower to encourage beneficial habitat.

At Woodleaf Farm lots of flowering plants are left to go to flower to encourage beneficial habitat.

INTRODUCTION: location, climate, farm history and philosophy.

Woodleaf farm has been certified organic for over 30 years.  Farm fields are nestled in among 26 acres

of native oak/pine forest in the Sierra foothills of northern California. The climate is Mediterranean: wet winters, with temperatures dropping into the 20s, and dry summers, with temperatures soaring into the 90s.  Annual precipitation is 35 inches. Soils are mostly “flanly-swedesflat-rackerby complex” with 5 to 20 percent slopes. There are 8 acres (broken into seven 1-2 acre fields) of mixed fruit and vegetable production for farmers’ market sales   Soil tests, taken yearly for 30 years, track the rising soil fertility, with organic matter levels climbing  from lows of 2 – 3% in the 1980s and 1990s to 4 – 6% in the 2000s (Figure 1).  Soil nutrient balancing, organic residues applied to maintain closely coupled nitrogen to carbon cycling, and reduced tillage are the major focus at Woodleaf farm.  Carl believes that fertile soil is a mixture of well-balanced minerals, high organic matter, good aeration and bountiful soil life.  “It is crucial to leave the soil as undisturbed as possible.  Tending soil for optimum production means adding minerals when needed and different organic residues regularly.  Compost made from branches, leaves and plant residues without manures is better for orchards since it best supports fungal growth” and invests in the long term carbon cycle. Carl monitors and bases his amendment inputs on macronutrient, base saturation, and micronutrient balance, as well as tree growth and leaf color (mineral balancing details below). He believes that annual addition of different forms of organic matter and past soil amendment history keeps soil microorganisms active releasing soil nutrients during high plant nutrient demand. Insect and disease damage has mostly decreased over the past 30 years and Carl attributes this to his system that includes: nutrient balancing and decreased high nitrogen soil amendments, mineral foliar spray program, ground cover/living mulch management, reduced tillage, and careful attention to field hygiene and fruit tree shape. Carl believes that his native plant beneficial insect habitat and letting the perennial ground cover/living mulch go to flower (bringing beneficial insects into the fields) has been helpful in keeping insect damage in check over time. Woodleaf Farm has a vegetable crop – fruit tree rotation, with vegetable crops usually rotated into areas where fruit trees are removed for 1 to three years.  The farm uses gravity flow irrigation, 100% solar power, low energy use buildings, and cats for gopher control. In 1992, when the Organic Farming Research Foundation launched its first round of competitive grants, Woodleaf farm was awarded a grant to study brown rot control. Since then, the farm has continued to study organic soil management and experiment with nutrient and pest management interactions. In February 2012, Woodleaf farm was recognized with a Steward of Sustainable Agriculture Award, at the 32nd Annual EcoFarm Conference.

first1-web1000x2881.jpgYIELD AND QUALITY: Crops taste better, are more resistant to frost and disease, and store better than in the early 1990s.  Crop yield has remained the same or increased, except for peaches where the yield decreased slightly when trees were pruned shorter to save labor by allowing for harvest without ladders.

Taste is one of the selling points of Woodleaf peaches, pears, apples, peppers, and cucumbers; this quality allows Woodleaf to get premium prices for its fruit and vegetables at farmer’s markets (which are Woodleaf Farm’s only market outlet).

SOILS/FERTILITY:  Soil organic matter (SOM) levels and most soil macronutrient levels have increased over time on Woodleaf Farm (Figures 1-3).  Micronutrients have also mostly increased over time at Woodleaf farm (Table 3). Woodleaf farm has a unique nitrogen cycling and mineral balancing soil management system that works in a synergistic manner and mimics nutrient cycling in a natural forest system. The system has two parts:

1. CLOSELY COUPLED NITROGEN TO CARBON CYCLING SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: Over time, soil organic matter (SOM) levels have increased from an average of 2.4 in the 1980s to an average of 5.4 in 2012.  Soil nitrate-nitrogen levels have decreased from an average of 34 ppm in the 1980s to an average of 8 ppm in 2012. Yet, high yields have been maintained.  Carl applies several different kinds of plant residues with both harder and easier to degrade carbon regularly throughout the year in order to link nitrogen mineralization to SOM decomposition. These include:

  • Off-Farm Yard waste compost applied 2 to 4 times a year (usually spring and fall) at 2 tons per acre dry weight (4-6 tons per acre per year have been applied in the past). As soil fertility builds, Woodleaf continues to experiment with less yard waste compost addition. The nutrient analysis range of the off-farm, chipped branch-containing yard waste compost is (dry weight):
  1. C: N ratio = 10.1 to 14:1,
  2. Nitrogen = 1.48 % to 2%,
  3. Phosphorus = 0.3% to 0.4%,
  4. Potassium = 0.76% to 2.3%,
  5. pH = 8.1 to 8.4
  6. Organic matter = 34% to 36%
  • Prunings are placed in the middle of the row and will get mowed as soon as possible.

    Prunings are placed in the middle of the row and will get mowed as soon as possible.

    Two or three passes with the mower to break up the prunings as small as possible.  Soils with lots of biological activity can break down the chipped branch wood in just a few months.

    Two or three passes with the mower to break up the prunings as small as possible. Soils with lots of biological activity can break down the chipped branch wood in just a few months.

    Woodleaf Chipped branch wood (green leaves and young 1/2” to 1.25” branches) from on-farm tree prunings applied twice per year after pruning in late summer/fall and spring. Branches from pruning are placed in the row middles over the grass/clover/weed living mulch and broken up with a rotary tractor mounted mower and then again with a small riding mower. This is a harder to degrade, higher carbon source.

  • Woodleaf hay mulch from the permanent grass and legume ground cover/living mulch. Living mulch residue is mowed 2-4 times annually, supplying a slightly higher nitrogen residue to the soil on a regular basis during the growing seasons. Mowed grass/clover/weed living mulch additions to the soil range from 1-3 feet (height) of mowed residue per mowing. This results in annual, on-farm grown “hay” soil surface residue applications of approximately 2-4 tons (dry weight) per acre, for an approximate annual N-P-K application of 50 lbs. per acre N, 22 lbs. per acre P, and 38 lbs. per acre K. Grass/clover/weed living mulch hay also supplies other nutrients per acre: Sulfur (4 lbs.), calcium (4 lbs.), magnesium (3 lbs.), manganese (0.1 lbs.) and other micronutrients. This is an easier to degrade, lower carbon source.  Regular mowing allows nutrients to be continually “recycled” in this nitrogen cycling management system.
Here at Woodleaf Farm soil tests are done every three years and minerals are added to perfectly balance the soil for healthy disease resistant plants that taste great too!

Here at Woodleaf Farm soil tests are done every three years and minerals are added to perfectly balance the soil for healthy disease resistant plants that taste great too!

After taking a soil test minerals are mixed together then added to the soil.

After taking a soil test minerals are mixed together then added to the soil.

2. MINERAL BALANCING SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: minerals are applied and incorporated at tree or vegetable crop planting and surface applied when soil tests indicate the need. Carl applies foliar mineral sprays regularly throughout the early part of the season (normally 1-4 cover sprays from bloom until fruit thinning). Minerals applied to the soil at Woodleaf include:

  • Kelp for micronutrients.
  • Solubor for boron.
  • Manganese sulfate 31% for manganese.
  • Ferrous sulfate for iron and pH adjustment.
  • Limestone with 33% calcium.
  • Gypsum with 22% calcium and 16% sulfur.
  • Soil Sulfur (92%).
  • Sulfate of potash with 50% potassium and 18% sulfur.
  • Azomite (an ancient seabed rock deposit).
  • Activate (a humate).
  • Nutramin (an ancient seabed rock deposit).

For detailed information about Carl’s nutrient balancing process go to: https://woodleaffarm.com/enlivening-soil/.

DISEASES: Disease problems and spraying for disease have decreased over time at Woodleaf farm.  Brown rot was the main issue, causing up to 30% damage to ripe fruit some years in the 1980s and early 1990s. In the late 1980s and into the late 1990s, Woodleaf sprayed copper pre-bloom for leaf curl and wettable sulfur (15-20 lbs. per acre) during bloom (2-4 sprays) for brown rot on peaches. In the late 1990s, Carl was concerned about a rise in soil copper levels. Hence, informed by his 1992-1995 brown rot research (see Experiment below), Carl began a new spray program in the mid-1990s, dropping copper and utilizing a mineral mix (including kelp, minerals, and micronized sulfur at 8 to 16 pounds/acre) 1-4 times during bloom, depending on precipitation (more sprays and higher micronized sulfur levels during wet springs).  The photo (left) is Carl’s “spray-shed record” of the first of two mineral mix sprays and pounds per acre sprayed of each material on peaches in 2013. Dry kelp was added to the second 2013 spray. The marketable peach crop in 2013 was 79% premium grade, 17% off-grade (lower price), and 4% lost to brown rot damage.  Micronized sulfur, which is a standard practice material used by organic peach growers for brown rot management, is part of Woodleaf’s bloom spray mineral mix. However, sulfur is now used mostly at a lower rates (8 lbs/acre in 2013, 10 lbs per acre in 2014) due to the greater efficacy of micronized sulfur (compared to the old wettable spray sulfur materials) and Woodleaf’s success with its mineral mix bloom sprays.  Brown rot bloom sprays in 2014 were a mix of: 10 lbs. micronized sulfur, 10 lbs. gypsum, 10 lbs. Azomite, 10 lbs. ferrous sulfate, 6 lbs. sulfate of potash, 6 lbs. manganese sulfate, 1.5 lbs. Solubor, 1.5 lbs. Maxi-crop, 1 lb. Nutramin, 1lb. Activate and 4oz. Thermax 70 mixed with 300 gallons of water with constant good mechanical agitation.

Woodleaf’s disease management system also includes managing the living mulch/perennial ground cover (mowing during wet/humid weather) and strict attention to orchard hygiene. Orchard hygiene includes: removing all diseased fruit/mummies as well as pruning timing, and a smaller, open tree size and shape. In three fields with deficient soil copper levels, Carl is considering spraying copper pre-bloom for brown rot in 2014 or 2015. Woodleaf still manages for Fireblight on apples and pears regularly at bloom, using Carl’s mineral mix, Seranade (Bacillus subtilis), and Blossom Protect (Aureobasidium pullulans). Peach leaf curl is treated every fall, using lime sulfur. Other diseases, such as powdery mildew on peaches and apples and apple scab have decreased or remained stable at approximately 5-10 % cosmetic damage annually over time. The micronized sulfur in Woodleaf’s 2-4 bloom sprays on apples and pears may be helping to manage apple scab and powdery mildew on apples. Apple scab is a disease that Woodleaf’s apple-growing neighbors spray for regularly throughout the growing season.

Experiment: Peach Brown Rot Control 1992-1995 (Organic Farming Research Foundation Grant # 92-26).  Two rows of a very Brown rot susceptible peach variety (O’Henry) were divided into three replicated sections and sprayed with 11 substances for brown rot suppression in 1992 and 10 substances in 1993 (see total list of tested substances below). The most successful treatments, resulting in the least brown rot and highest yields in the experiment plots were: dry kelp plus basalt rock (55% marketable fruit); dry kelp alone (42%); compost tea + pink mucoid yeast (Aureobasidium pullulans) (41%); and hydrogen peroxide + pink mucoid yeast (40%). These treatments out-performed the “standard practice” organic disease controls, used alone at the following rates: copper (10 lbs. /acre) and sulfur (20 lbs. /acre).  The Aureobasidium pullulans yeast was found on the leaves of Woodleaf peach trees and cultured by a microbiologist at California State University Chico, Chuck Sellers.

Investigations continued in 1994 when 20 Royal Glo test trees were sprayed with the 4 substances that had performed best in 1992 and 1993 and compared to a control of the standard practice sulfur treatment (three replicates of each spray treatment, with an unsprayed buffer tree between each sprayed tree). Test trees were sprayed four times during bloom and four times at weekly intervals before harvest with:

1.   Basalt rock dust at four lbs. per acre.

2.   Wilbur – Ellis Spray sulfur at 15 lbs. per acre.

3.   Aureobasidium Pullulans yeast (at 10 to the seventh power concentration) 1.5 gallons per tree.

4.   Algrow kelp at three lbs. per acre.

5.   A mixture of the rock dust, yeast and kelp.

Results were not statistically significant in 1994, but the basalt rock, kelp, and Aureobasidium Pullulans treatments performed as well as the standard practice treatment (15 lbs. of sulfur per acre). In 1995, the microbiologist was not available to culture the Aureobasidium pullulans yeast found at Woodleaf, so the yeast treatment was not applied. At peach bloom, two spray treatments and a control plot of sulfur were compared on 12 Red Haven peach trees (three trees of each spray treatment).  All test trees were separated by an unsprayed buffer tree.  Four bloom sprays were applied every five to seven days from pink bud to petal fall to test the following materials:

1.   Basalt rock dust at four pounds per acre of dust.

2.   Wilbur – Ellis Spray sulfur at 20 lbs. per acre.

3.   Nutribiotic (grapefruitseed extract) at 1,000PPM

In 1995, the basalt rock dust treatment trees yielded more than twice the control trees, with 2 1/2 times less brown rot. The whole orchard, including the experiment trees  received 8 mineral and kelp foliar sprays from just after bloom until harvest; foliar sprays consisted of: Hydrolyzed fish meal, Algrow kelp, basalt rock dust, Azomite, Soluble gypsum, corn calcium, apple cider vinegar, and sulfur.   .

Overall, from 1992 through 1995, the most successful treatments, resulting in the least brown rot and highest yields were mixtures of materials with rock dust, minerals (including low rates of sulfur), and kelp. The Aureobasidium Pullulans yeast treatment also performed well, but was difficult to obtain, until recently. This yeast is now commercially available and in 2009 there were reports in the literature that Aureobasidium pullulans can be used to control pre-harvest diseases of stone fruit caused by monilinia spp. and B. cinerea 

The most successful treatments out-performed common organic disease controls, normally used alone at the following rates: copper (8-16 lbs. /acre) or sulfur (15-20 lbs. /acre).  Both are standard practice for organic peach growers in California, however neither sulfur nor copper are recommended for brown rot control by university of California Extension or IPM programs (http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r602100111.html#MANAGEMENT.  Woodleaf now uses sulfur only as part of the bloom spray mix and at a lower rate of 8 – 10 lbs. per acre. If there is a wet spring year with high disease potential, Woodleaf will go as high as 15 lbs per acre of sulfur during bloom sprays.

The total list of substances tested at Woodleaf 1992-1995 included:

  • Kelp (dry and liquid)
  • Basalt rock plus dry and liquid kelp
  • Rado rock plus dry and liquid kelp
  • Compost tea #1 ((liquid kelp, molasses, basalt rock, and 10 gallons of finished compost)
  • Compost tea #2 (liquid kelp, molasses, basalt rock, and 10 gallons of finished compost/acre plus brewer’s malt and fish meal)
  • Compost tea plus pink mucoid yeast (Aureobasidium pullulans)
  • Hydrogen peroxide plus pink mucoid yeast (Aureobasidium pullulans)
  • Blend of basalt rock, dry kelp, hydrogen peroxide, compost tea, white wine vinegar, and pink mucoid yeast (Aureobasidium pullulans)
  • Azomite (montmorillonite clay) and liquid kelp
  • Copper 10 lbs. per acre.
  • Wettable sulfur 20 lbs. per acre
  • Citicidial grapefruit seed extract
  • Wine and raw apple cider mixed with water to a pH of 2.8 and applied at 300 gallons/acre
  • Irrigation water applied at 300 gallons/acre (control)

INSECTS: Insect problems are changing and have generally diminished over time, with the exception of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) on cherries. Aphids and Lepidopteran pests (especially, peach tree twig borer and oriental fruit moth) have decreased over time at Woodleaf farm and are no longer sprayed.  Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) was applied through the 1990s for peach tree twig borer and oriental fruit moth (usually 2-3 sprays from bloom through fruit set).  Thrips have been a continuous problem at Woodleaf, but damage has decreased slightly since Carl began to manage the mowing timing of his ground cover/living mulch. Carl now allows the ground cover to flower and seed in the spring before mowing. He also maintains blooming ground cover within the orchard and vegetable production areas throughout the season. The groundcover provides habitat for ground-dwelling spiders and carabid beetles and pollen and nectar for predators such as syrphid flies and soldier beetles and parasites such as wasps and tiny flies (monitored in 2013 & 2014). Entrust has been sprayed for thrips annually since 2006. Spotted Wing Drosophila became a problem in the area in 2008, and is an increasing problem at Woodleaf, particularly on cherries. In 2012, 2013, and 2014 the only insect sprays applied at Woodleaf on the main crop (peaches) was a half spray (every other row middle) of entrust sprayed at petal fall when early peach varieties were forming fruits. This half-spray was applied when western flower thrips reached a threshold of 1 thrip per leaf/flower. The half spray may also be targeting peach twig borer and Drosophila. Cherries were sprayed twice for Drosophila in 2013. Pears and apples are not sprayed for insects. Codling moth damaged up to 30% of the apple crop in the 1990s and still damages 12% (2012) to 20% (2013) of the apple crop. However, codling moth damages only 1% (2012) to 9% (2013) of the pear crop. Most of this damage is removed during pear and apple thinning. Pears are the more important crop on Woodleaf farm and Carl considers apples a “trap crop” for codling moth on this farm. Nothing (neither sprays nor mating disruption pheromones) are applied for Codling moth; the only “pest control” is the systems pest management from beneficial insect predators and parasites, birds, and soil microorganisms (see Tables 1 & 2, Pest Suppressive Systems Strategies at Woodleaf Farm). For a list of common peach pests and standard controls in California see: http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r602100111.html#MANAGEMENT.

WEEDS: Hand weeding and tractor cultivation has significantly decreased over time at Woodleaf. There is no hand weeding at Woodleaf, in either fruit or vegetable crops, now nor for the past 10 years. But some vegetable crops get weedy by the end of the season. Mowing of living mulches has increased. Mowing to manage weeds and the living mulch competition is also part of the disease, insect, and fertility management systems. Timing of mowing the living mulch and fruit tree prunings (the “chipped branch wood” organic residue amendment part of the fertility management system) revolve around best timing for enhancing insect pest biological control and air movement for disease management. Weeds, clovers, and grasses in the living mulch between tree crop rows are allowed to bloom and seed; they are allowed to bloom, but not seed (when possible) in the vegetable production areas.

IRRIGATION:  Woodleaf farm uses gravity flow irrigation and micro-sprinklers. Each field receives approximately 2-2.5 inches of water per week (both fruit trees and living mulch). Vegetable crops receive 1 inch per week.

ROTATION HISTORY: Woodleaf grows mostly perennial tree fruit crops with perennial sod living mulch beneath the crops. Annual vegetable crops are grown every year on ¼ – 1 acre in a part of the orchard that is being renovated. In 2008 after a hard spring frost that wiped out fruit crops, Carl raised only vegetables on ½ acre. This fruit/vegetable rotation has added biological and economic sustainability to Woodleaf farm. The living mulch is a perennial grass-clover mix seeded when the orchard is renovated.

SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT INTERACTIONS: Another long term, successful organic fruit grower from Colorado commented on Woodleaf’s living mulch management weed/soil/pest management system with what seems a good summary of the possible systems interactions occurring at Woodleaf:  Steve Ela, from Ela Family Farms says, “ On our farm we are really trying to grow a lush cover crop early in the spring (you can do that in the winter, which we can’t), and mow them often to try to “jump start” the N cycle in the soil in the spring when the trees need N most.  Later in the summer we stop mowing so as to tie up more N and enhance fruit quality by decreasing N.  Then we mow right at harvest for easy access, but that also gives the trees a fall boost of N which, at that timing, should be preferentially shifted to the next year’s fruit buds and not to shoot growth.  We are essentially doing the same thing as Woodleaf farm – minimal weed control, except for very young trees, development of a really good cover crop, lots of organic residue cycling, mowing, and not tilling”

Thanks to Rodale Institute’s Your 2 Cents Fund and Western Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education who funded this project.

SOIL TEST DATA – WOODLEAF FARM

First fruit trees went in 1985 and 1986

YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
7/86 1 4-10 5.1 106 228 332 950 8 0.9 47 122 0.4 1.8 6.3 22 9.3 6.3 29.9 51.3
6/89 1 4-10 2.2 18 45 170 920 19 7.7 66 156 1.5 6.8 6 6.2 1.9 22.9 74.4
6/90 1 4-10 1.8 36 90 230 1210 10 0.8 6 34 2.1 1.4 6.8 7 8.3 2.8 23.1 72.8
8/94 1 4-10 3.2 74 162 182 1670 17 2.2 27 82 0.5 2.6 6.9 5 10.6 3.9 14.2 78.9
6/97 1 5-8 4.8 82 122 187 2071 12 6 13 66 0.9 15.6 6.8 7 12.6 2.5 12.2 81.9
9/97 1 10 5.4 79 202 211 1710 13 6.4 21 77 1 18.7 6.6 19 12.1 4.3 14.4 70.8
9/97 1 11-12 4.9 69 129 193 2224 22 7.7 21 53 1.6 19.1 6.8 10 13.6 2.4 11.7 81.6
7/2001 1 4-10 4.7 61 216 188 1677 17 5.4 14 61 1 11.9 6.4 21 11.6 4.8 13.3 72.2
6/2003 1 4-10 4.2 48 158 179 1410 28 9.9 14 67 0.8 26.1 6.4 15 9.9 4.1 15 71.3
9/2010 1 1-13 4.8 77 219 236 1796 2 5.7 10 80 0.8 14.6 6.6 27 12.3 4.6 15.8 72.9
7/2012 1 4-10 6.4 94 371 349 2217 12 9.2 8 71 0.5 9.1 6.4 13 16.5 5.8 17.4 67.1
YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
9/96 2 19-21pear 4.5 63 138 182 2576 38 6.7 25 51 0.9 8.7 6.9 5 15 2.4 10 85.8
7/2001 2 18-21 5.9 85 272 195 1620 11 12.7 21 104 0.7 10 6.1 12 12.2 5.7 13.2 66.4
6/2003 2 18-21 4.9 67 318 166 1417 4 8.4 14 104 0.7 6.5 6.1 29 10.8 7.5 12.6 65.3
7/2012 2 17-21 4.8 85 363 265 2015 15 8.3 7 63 0.9 10.8 6.4 8 14.5 6.4 15.0 69.2
YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
9/82 2 22-26peach 2.6 5 63 210 1060 40 1.5 6.7 7.4 2.2 23.8 72
8/84 2 22-26 5.2 162 482 365 1530 6.3 61 13.6 9.1 22.4 56.3
6/90 2 22-26 3.3 84 126 228 1770 41 4.9 21 108 0.7 4.8 7 9 11.2 2.9 17 79.3
6/91 2 22-26 2.3 53 110 144 1180 9 2.3 9 28 0.8 4.1 7.6 11 7.4 3.8 16.2 79.7
6/92 2 22-26 2.4 59 126 148 1240 9 2.1 11 36 0.6 3.9 7.0 14 7.8 4.1 15.8 79.4
8/94 2 22-26 2.3 82 121 119 1580 11 3.5 6 49 0.9 5.7 7 3 9.3 3.3 10.6 85.2
9/96 2 25 3.7 66 115 253 1692 15 5 18 136 0.8 17.4 6.1 9 12.6 2.3 16.4 66.8
7/2001 2 22-26 4 63 180 174 1582 9 6.9 12 85 0.7 20.8 6.3 14 11 4.2 13 71.7
6/2003 2 23-27 5.2 59 221 170 1712 3 7.3 8 97 1.2 17.3 6.6 17 11.2 5 12.4 76
9/2007 2 26-27 4.6 42 310 278 1730 1.2 10 8.4 81 0.6 14.8 6.2 29 13.5 5.9 16.9 64
YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P1  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
6/90 3 28-31 2.8 107 144 201 1880 35 6.1 20 45 0.6 4 7.2 8 11.5 3.2 14.6 81.7
6/91 3 28-31 2.0 58 108 125 1460 7 3.9 11 20 0.9 4.5 7.6 9 8.6 3.2 12.1 84.5
6/92 3 28-31 2.8 95 228 180 1760 8 3.8 12 27 0.6 2.9 7.3 13 10.9 5.3 13.7 80.4
10/94 3 29L 2.8 73 134 172 1620 12 4 9 61 0.9 14.4 7.3 7 10 3.4 14.1 8O.7
10/94 3 29H 2 101 89 170 1140 27 3.5 10 54 0.9 4.1 7.1 5 7.5 3 18.7 75.9
9/96 3 28-31 4.7 80 191 201 2038 5 5.9 18 67 1.0 10.3 6.9 15 12.6 3.9 13.1 81
7/2001 3 28-31 4.9 43 203 171 1879 12 9.4 18 58 0.7 16.5 6.7 20 11.9 4.3 11.8 78.7
6/2003 3 28-31 4.6 50 195 152 1788 3 6.5 9 55 1.2 9.1 6.9 15 10.9 4.6 11.5 81.9
9/2007 3 29-31 5.9 48 397 289 2298 34 12.8 8 62 0.8 14.5 6.4 14 16.5 6.2 14.4 69.6
7/2012 3 28-31 5.6 68 290 264 1874 6 8.7 5 55 0.5 9.0 6.3 8 13.8 5.4 15.8 67.9
YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P1  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
4/98 4 36-48 2.2 23 68 175 889 1 3.9 11 85 0.6 2.1 5.8 8 7.5 2.3 19.1 58.8
7/2001 4 38-44 3.7 48 235 222 1313 21 7.2 11 61 0.5 4.2 6.7 10 9.5 6.3 19.3 69.1
6/2003 4 38-44 3.5 52 228 202 1416 3 6.3 6 91 0.7 3.2 6.3 15 10.5 5.6 15.9 67.5
7/2012 4 32-44 4.9 72 413 294 1684 18 9.9 5 53 .9 6.5 6.4 8 13.1 8.1 18.4 64.1
YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P1  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
9/99 5 47-50 2.7 64 90 173 1571 4 18.4 8 76 0.7 2 6.7 45 12.1 1.9 11.8 64.7
7/2001 5 48-52 3.8 94 243 229 1720 11 15.2 7 85 0.7 2.7 6.7 22 11.7 5.3 16.1 73.2
YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P1  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
6/2003 6 53-57 5.2 99 226 424 2201 7 6.6 5 57 1.5 1.4 7.4 13 15.1 3.8 23.1 72.6
9/2007 6 56-59 5.5 71 305 504 3029 15 13.1 4 56 0.8 2.7 6.9 9 20.5 3.8 20.2 73.8
9/2010 6 54-61 6.1 60 298 345 1835 36 7 6 36 0.6 1.8 7.3 7 13 5.9 21.9 70.6
YEAR FIELD/row %OM    ppm P1  K Mg    Ca             S ZN MN FE B Cu pH    No3 CEC %K %Mg % Ca               
9/2007 7 61-68 2.8 15 215 196 1196 10 3.8 5 35 0.5 1.7 6.4 11 9 6.1 17.8 66
7/2012 7 61-68 4.6 55 207 265 1550 28 7.8 5 36 .9 2.4 6.4 6 11.5 4.6 18.9 67.1

 

One thought on “Farm System Summary

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s